During the Ottoman Period, Tophane Square was one of the busiest and most active centers of Ottoman Istanbul as one can see Antoine Ignace Melling’s drawing dating to 1819. Thus, the square was in the middle of very important monuments: City port, Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque Complex, Arsenal and military barracks, and Nusretiye Mosque Complex. In order to provide water for travelers coming from the city port and running water for praying people’s washing needs, Ottoman Sultan Mahmud I (r. 1730 - 54) commissioned a large public fountain to be placed in Tophane Square in 1731. One year later in 1732, Architect Kayserili Mehmed Ağa finished the construction of the Tophane Fountain and it started to function.
Despite 150 years old difference, there is architectural unity between the Tophane Fountain and its neighboring mosque Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque. The fountain is square in shape and each side of it is eight meters. All four sides of the fountain are same in design with naturmont style floral motifs, wide eaves, and pointed arches. In addition, on each façade of the fountain there is an inscription of poem excerpts in Ottoman Turkish by famous Diwan poet Nahifi.